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August 15 is a special day for Indian democracy and Indians. On this day, after almost 200 years of colonialism, our country gained complete independence from British oppression and slavery on 15 August 1947. This is a special and golden day for Indians, and we all celebrate Independence Day with great enthusiasm and style. Today, 75 years have passed since the independence of our country, but even today, remembering those moments of independence, our eyes become wet. About 400 years ago, the British East India Company came to India for the purpose of doing business in India. Along with business, the British began to grasp the immensity of the poverty, helplessness and weakness of the people and began to take advantage. Taking advantage of the compulsion, they started torturing them by enslaving them and they buried the poor and helpless people under their hatred. Unable to repay their debts, they enslaved them and began to work and oppress them indiscriminately. One by one they subjugated the kingdoms and their kings and took control of almost the whole of India. By the 18th century, European merchants had established trading posts in the Indian subcontinent. In the 18th century, the British East India Company established itself as a major power in India due to its irresistible military might. In 1857, the year after the First War of Independence, the Rule of India Act was passed and the British monarchy ended the rule of the Company and took over the rule of India. In the next few decades, a civil society educated in modern India emerged. The most notable event of this period was the establishment of the Indian National Congress at Gokul Das Tej Pal Sanskrit College, Bombay in 1885. After the First World War, the British government made some reforms in the Indian administration. The Montague-Chelmsford Reform was one of them. But at the same time, repressive laws like the Rowlatt Act were passed and Indian freedom fighters demanded autonomy. The mass discontent of this episode intensified the non-violent non-cooperation movement led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi).
In the 1930s, the British government legalized the proposal for administrative reform in India. The Indian National Congress won the elections provided for under the Act. The next decade was a decade of political instability: India’s participation in World War II and the last non-cooperation movement of the Congress marked this decade. The growing political tensions subsided with the attainment of independence in 1947. But the joy of independence was interrupted by the partition of the subcontinent between the states of India and Pakistan. During the British occupation of India, they started indiscriminate oppression of the people, such as the excessive collection of rent, occupation of their fields and crops, etc. That is why the people here suffered so much because of their atrocities. When they opposed the persecution, they were shot dead, as in Jallianwala. The attitude of the British towards the Indians and their oppression was increasing day by day and the resentment of the Indians towards them was also increasing. The fire of this barbaric attitude of the British was first seen in the form of the revolt of Mangal Pandey in 1857. Gradually the voices demanding independence from British oppression began to come from other parts of India as well. From 1930 to 1948, January 26 was celebrated by Congress as Independence Day. Jawaharlal Nehru in his autobiography described these meetings as peaceful, solemn and “devoid of any speech or advice”. Mahatma Gandhi planned to do more on this day in addition to the meeting. He thought this day should be celebrated “…doing some creative work. Cutting the wheel, or serving the ‘untouchables’, or organizing Hindu-Muslim harmony, or breaking the law, or doing it all together.” After the independence of India in 1947, the Constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950. Since then, January 26 has been celebrated as the Republic Day of India. After World War II, the United Kingdom’s public coffers were depleted in 1948. At the time, the newly-elected Labour government felt that the British people would not be able to maintain control over India, which was becoming increasingly volatile, and that international assistance would be impossible. In addition, the government felt that the local army would not be reliable in this task. However, the newly appointed Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten, pushed forward the date of the transfer of power. He feared that the ongoing debate between Congress and the Muslim League could lead to the fall of the Interim Government. The government approved the decision to bifurcate British India. At the same time, the government announced that the two newly formed states would be given sovereign status and would have the full power to secede from the British Commonwealth. Subsequently, under the Indian Independence Act (1948), passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, British India was divided into two independent countries, India and Pakistan (including the territory of the present state of Bangladesh). The law came into force on 14 August 1947 and at the same time gave full legislative authority to the respective Constituent Assemblies of the two newly formed states. Millions of Muslim, Sikh and Hindu refugees crossed the Radcliffe Line and took refuge in safer countries. Bloody riots broke out in Punjab as Sikh areas were divided. The presence of Mahatma Gandhi in Bengal and Bihar was able to alleviate some of the riots. Nevertheless, 250,000 to 500,000 people were killed in riots on both sides of the border. On 14 August 1947, the new country of Pakistan was born. In Karachi, Muhammad Ali Jinnah was sworn in as the state’s first governor-general. At midnight, on August 15, 1947, Jawaharlal
In the 1930s, the British government legalized the proposal for administrative reform in India. The Indian National Congress won the elections provided for under the Act. The next decade was a decade of political instability: India’s participation in World War II and the last non-cooperation movement of the Congress marked this decade. The growing political tensions subsided with the attainment of independence in 1947. But the joy of independence was interrupted by the partition of the subcontinent between the states of India and Pakistan. During the British occupation of India, they started indiscriminate oppression of the people, such as the excessive collection of rent, occupation of their fields and crops, etc. That is why the people here suffered so much because of their atrocities. When they opposed the persecution, they were shot dead, as in Jallianwala. The attitude of the British towards the Indians and their oppression was increasing day by day and the resentment of the Indians towards them was also increasing. The fire of this barbaric attitude of the British was first seen in the form of the revolt of Mangal Pandey in 1857. Gradually the voices demanding independence from British oppression began to come from other parts of India as well. From 1930 to 1948, January 26 was celebrated by Congress as Independence Day. Jawaharlal Nehru in his autobiography described these meetings as peaceful, solemn and “devoid of any speech or advice”. Mahatma Gandhi planned to do more on this day in addition to the meeting. He thought this day should be celebrated “…doing some creative work. Cutting the wheel, or serving the ‘untouchables’, or organizing Hindu-Muslim harmony, or breaking the law, or doing it all together.” After the independence of India in 1947, the Constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950. Since then, January 26 has been celebrated as the Republic Day of India. After World War II, the United Kingdom’s public coffers were depleted in 1948. At the time, the newly-elected Labour government felt that the British people would not be able to maintain control over India, which was becoming increasingly volatile, and that international assistance would be impossible. In addition, the government felt that the local army would not be reliable in this task. However, the newly appointed Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten, pushed forward the date of the transfer of power. He feared that the ongoing debate between Congress and the Muslim League could lead to the fall of the Interim Government. The government approved the decision to bifurcate British India. At the same time, the government announced that the two newly formed states would be given sovereign status and would have the full power to secede from the British Commonwealth. Subsequently, under the Indian Independence Act (1948), passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, British India was divided into two independent countries, India and Pakistan (including the territory of the present state of Bangladesh). The law came into force on 14 August 1947 and at the same time gave full legislative authority to the respective Constituent Assemblies of the two newly formed states. Millions of Muslim, Sikh and Hindu refugees crossed the Radcliffe Line and took refuge in safer countries. Bloody riots broke out in Punjab as Sikh areas were divided. The presence of Mahatma Gandhi in Bengal and Bihar was able to alleviate some of the riots. Nevertheless, 250,000 to 500,000 people were killed in riots on both sides of the border. On 14 August 1947, the new country of Pakistan was born. In Karachi, Muhammad Ali Jinnah was sworn in as the state’s first governor-general. At midnight, on August 15, 1947, Jawaharlal

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