Islamic concept of Nikah (Marriage)
Category : Marriage Special
Author : Dr Asma Zehra
Man’s existence on earth began with the marriage of Adam (As) with Hawwa (As). Allah Swt mentions this relationship of spouses as a Sign of Allah Swt. It’s the mercy of Allah that He has put Love and Compassion in this relationship. The basis of tribes, communities and nations is the small basic unit of family which begins with marriage.

Man’s existence on earth began with the marriage of Adam (As) with Hawwa (As). Allah Swt mentions this relationship of spouses as a sign of Allah Swt. It’s the mercy of Allah that He has put Love and Compassion in this relationship. The basis of tribes, communities and nations is the small basic unit of family which begins with marriage.
The ideology and concept of marriage needs to be understood in this perspective to understand the family laws of Islamic Shariah.
Modern or so called “advanced society” has failed to understand the spiritual and moral significance of marriage and therefore it is reduced to mere biological relationship with some legality. This has paved way for sexual relations before marriage, dating, extra marital relations etc. Man’s superior position as the ‘qawwam’, the caretaker and responsible person of family is reduced to an inferior state of Romeo, lover, playboy, Devdas etc in modern society.
Both husband and wife are ‘liberated’ of the obligations towards each other in the name of ‘openness’ and ‘freedom’ and as a result a weakest family structure emerges with mere physical relation devoid of moral and spiritual foundation.
The NIKAH i.e marriage in Islam has a deeper and a vast approach in terms of carrying out the rights and duties, keeping up religious, social and moral values and fulfilling all obligations that comes with it.
While the institution of marriage in Islam paves way to the fulfilment of the rights and duties of both the husband and wife, it also is a shield from committing sins and immoral activities. Marriage provides a favourable environment to build a strong and healthy family and a prosperous community.
The Islamic concept of Nikah has an ideological, spiritual, moral and social basis collectively. It has laxity to adjust to the needs, desires, choices and preferences of men and women. The duties and responsibilities are fixed as per the capabilities of men & women. Husband is solely responsible to satisfy the financial needs of the family. In the Islamic concept of marriage, both husband and wife enjoy love, respect, honour, dignity, social security and social status.
Both men and women have the right to propose, accept or reject the proposal, and select their spouse.

The Holy Prophet (pbuh), the best role model for the ummah is an ideal for the Muslim community. His attitude, behaviour, kindness, and generosity with his wives is an important component of Islamic Law. Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) preached kindness with women of the House. He said “The best amongst you is the one who is best (in relation, attitude and behaviour) with his family members and I am best in relation with my family. In his farewell address Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said. “I order you to be pious and show kindness and mercy to your wives”.
The Qur’an and Sunnah give a clear concept of marriage which has teachings of happy, peaceful, and dignified marital life that wards off all evils and sins from society. Islam lays down clear rules and criteria for selection of partners.
The Halal (lawful) and Haraam (unlawful) relationships of marriage are clearly described in the Holy Qur’an (Surah Nisa: 22, 23, 24).
The conditions of Nikah (Marriage) to become legal or valid are clearly defined.
1. Offer and acceptance.
2. Dowry (Mehr) to be paid by the groom.
3. Two witnesses.
4. Father or guardian’s presence.

The conditions of Nikah (Marriage) to become legal or valid are clearly defined.

1.Offer and acceptance.
2.Dowry (Mehr) to be paid by the groom.
3.Two witnesses.
4.Father or guardian’s presence.
On fulfilment of these 4 basic requirements by two people the marriage contract is valid and they become husband and wife.

The Social Reform Committee of All India Muslim Personal Law Board has launched the “MASNOON NIKAH” campaign across India since March 2021. The aim of the campaign is to:

1.Create awareness on perception of marriage in Islam.
2.Educate men, women and youth on principles of marriage.
3.Reform the society from evils of dowry, unIslamic customs, traditions and israaf. (Extravagant Wedding)
4.Protect the young girls from falling prey to unIslamic culture and save them from transgression.

On fulfilment of these 4 basic requirements by two people the marriage contract is valid and they become husband and wife.

Khutba (sermon) and Valima (banquet)

It is an Islamic tradition to remember Allah at the time of Marriage. Therefore a Sermon is given during the occasion, which glorifies Allah swt.
Arranging a banquet (Valima) for the guests is obligatory on the husband after marriage. Valima is a way of expressing happiness for the wedding being solemnised.
The Islamic concept of Nikah is simple and easy without any extravagance. There is no scope for dowry, demands of various functions, dinners, furniture, cash, jewellery etc.

Celebrations at time of Wedding:

Islam does not encourage lavish celebrations during the occasion of Nikah. However, the husband is required to arrange for the Valima and make an announcement of the marriage.

Other forms of celebrations which include free mixing of men and women, insane rituals, extravagant functions etc are totally discouraged and forbidden.

Need for Reform in Marriage System in our Society.

Muslim Society today has deviated from the straight path of Qur’an and Hadith. Many unIslamic customs and traditions, demands and dowry in marriages, a very tough selection criteria (height, colour, qualification and wealth) has made marriage very difficult. Thousands of Muslim girls are awaiting marriage because of lack of money for dowry and there are increasing cases of harassment for dowry and dowry death. Parents with poor financial condition take loans on interest and they carry the burden of repaying the loan to their old age. Our society has become so inconsiderate towards old parents that day by day the demand for dowry in marriages is increasing.
It is our duty to understand the principles of marriage in Islam, make weddings simple and easy. We must avoid lavish weddings and promote the Islamic perspective of Nikah in all sections of society. Extravagant weddings, huge spending on multiple functions etc. needs immediate attention.

The Social Reform Committee of All India Muslim Personal Law Board has launched the “MASNOON NIKAH” campaign across India since March 2021. The aim of the campaign is to: 1) Create awareness on perception of marriage in Islam. 2) Educate men, women and youth on principles of marriage.
3) Reform the society from evils of dowry, unIslamic customs, traditions and israaf (Extravagant Wedding) 4) Protect the young girls from falling prey to unIslamic culture and save them from transgression.

Women’s Wing, AIMPLB has taken the initiative to organise State wise committees and conduct meetings. Special online meetings called “Mashawerati Ijlas” on making marriages simple have been organised in 15 States of India. Now each state committee is planning a 10 day campaign in the respective states to bring awareness from the grass root levels. Offline meetings, corner meetings, special lectures, online sessions, workshops and public meetings will be organised during the campaign. Ladies and girls will be organising, hosting and conducting the events under the Women’s Wing.

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